【皇氏古建築大全】【環遊尋美拾遺錄】【黃劍博客圖文集】
Jumbo Heritage List © Epic Adventure of Jumbo Huang

第780回:塔比兰拉城洛博克,保和眼镜猴保护区



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旅行的记忆会逐渐模糊,而照片会一次一次地唤醒它!



2017年10月05日,模式化的景点:不看遗憾一生,看了终身遗憾,所有景点都是不值得人们万水千山的赶来只为拍一个“到处一游。”

早上五点就起床,媛特意去洗头洗脸,换上漂亮衣裙,期待穿得美丽一些好出门拍摄美丽的照片,最后却吃了一脸的灰,真是人算不如天算,这可不是欧洲。

媛在酒店化妆时拖延时间,我催促她多次,正是希望越大,失望越大。

我们在房间吃完韩国方便面之后就出门,我们第一次租摩托车旅行,为了方便拍照,我俩都违反规定,没有戴头盔,因为我们都已经戴了帽子又背了背包,东西实在是太多了,我们骑出小径就左转,行驶进入道荣路,到了三岔路之后我行驶到错误的地方,直接到了达瑙沙滩边,前面是大海,再行驶就把车开到海里了。

我忙调头往回行驶,最后终于上了邦劳岛路,这时路上的车辆并不多,我能很好地驾驭本田摩托车,媛忘记将后座下面的伸缩脚踏板拉出来,导致她的双腿没有地方支撑,所以她初期都是将双腿悬空着,坐在车后面很难受,她多次想学菲律宾少女那样侧坐在摩托车上,但那样太危险了。

我右转行驶到笔直的道伊斯邦劳大道,这条笔直的水泥路有二到三车道,是岛上最好的公路,长约十多公里,我们行驶了十多分钟就右转进入风光怡人的道伊村,媛说路上全是灰尘,她不想继续后面的旅行了,想返回酒店休息,我劝她克服困难,不能出师未捷心先弃。

后来我停车休息,媛与当地人站在车站旁边,我过马路去参观道伊罗马天主教堂,附近还有一座受损的庄严宏伟的圣母大教堂。在教堂右侧是市政厅,前方的草坪有一些雕塑,我又过马路走到车站,天气酷热,我们现在才发现在烈日爆晒下骑本田摩托车吸灰尘是非常辛苦的事情,

也很消耗人的体力,关键是媛坐在车后座时她的双腿一直是悬空,而且她没有听我的话穿长裤,最要命的是她还没有发现隐藏着可以弹射出来的踏脚板,直到几个小时之后她才在无意中发现了那个踏板。

我们重新上了路,驾车过桥后右转进入东塔比拉兰路,经过血祭遗址,再行驶一会我们在一个加油站停车,我去加了二升的无钻汽油,花费92比索,之后我们继续沿海峡路行驶,二十分钟之后就到达了巴克拉永村,这个村庄分布着很多古建筑,包括很多老教堂,其中被列为《皇氏古建筑大全》第23798:巴克拉永教堂的位于海边,当时正在维修,媛走到海边的亭台去休息,我则走进教堂参观。

巴克拉洋教堂坐落在薄荷岛乡村路边,是西班牙人在菲律宾建的第一座教堂,已有近300年历史。虽然在19世纪,奥古斯丁教会在巴克拉洋教堂的前方增建一个现代门庭以及四周增加了一些石头建筑物,使得它的面貌与当年略有不同,在这个区域之中,它仍是耶稣会教士修造教的教堂当中保存最好的。

在教会旁边是老女修道院,现在是一个小博物馆,门票是25比索,展览几世纪以前的老宗教遗物和其它十六世纪人工制品。巴克拉永教堂并没有在地震中倒塌,纯属不易。浮泛的黑色印记、绿色苔藓、赫红色屋顶,见证着时光荏苒。通道里竖立着圣经人物塑像,虔诚教徒会在这里奉上一捧小花。

教堂里是一个宁静脱俗的时空,只有柔和圣洁的自然光照进略微潮湿的室内,古老祭台与恢弘的雕像、壁画,历尽沧桑却肃穆依旧。传说第一次来这里可以许三个愿望,大概上帝听到最多的便是爱的天长地久。踏过老旧木质阶梯,二楼博物馆里留存着许多十六世纪的宗教物品,临走前,可以在厚重的簿子上留言,也许那是属于情侣们爱的约定。

巴克拉扬大教堂本名叫圣母无原罪教堂。据说1595年建造这座教堂时动用了巴克拉扬地区所有人力,花了一年的时间,也有人说教堂最后的落成时间是在1727年。因为当年缺乏石料,建造教堂的石材都是取自当地的珊瑚礁石,巴克拉扬人把礁石切成方块,然后用沙子、石灰和鸡蛋蛋清调成粘合剂,一块一块砌出来的。

如今,在巴克拉扬教堂里还能看到几百年前大主教在盛典上穿的圣袍金冠披肩和圣婴耶稣的雕像。我参观了一会就过马路,看到媛在红树林旁边的亭子里休息,因为媛对古建筑没有兴趣,所以我只好放弃对巴克拉永古村落的探访,

我们上车之后继续行驶,经过大蟒避难所,很快我们就经过洛博克河上的大桥,左转进去利内路,再行驶半小时左右就到达了被地震毁掉的《皇氏古建筑大全》第23801:洛博克教堂。

前几年的地震将建于1734年的圣彼得教堂震毁了,一般从码头到阿罗纳海滩的游客会经过此地,因为教堂在地震中损毁,游客只是稍稍停一下,

拍个照片,一般人不会专门去一趟,所以这里的游客是非常少的,倒也极为安静,正是我们喜欢的。这个教堂以及其它古老的教堂多在那次地震中毁坏了。不过在那之后,这个社区又重建了一座临时的小教堂。

一位在那里工作了十多年,现在在这个小教堂的临时办公室的老先生说重建洛博克教堂大概需要40年,目前一直在接受社会捐款。在洛博克教堂旁边就是洛博克河,它是流经薄荷岛唯一的淡水河,两岸覆盖着茂密的植被,丛林深处有原始的热带风光和神秘的丛林动物,有“东方亚马逊河”的美称。

泛舟巡游被公认为是体验洛博克河最好的方式,从西南方的Loay Bridge,沿河上溯至岛中央的Busay Falls,是最受观光客欢迎的路线。在乘船欣赏热带风光的同时,还能看到两岸质朴的民居,船家会准备好纯正丰盛的菲式料理,弹奏木吉他的歌手也会相伴左右。泛舟的终点是一个土著村落,

可以上岸观看穿着草裙的土著人射箭、钻火圈、吞火等节目,结束后船只原路返回码头,全程约二小时,这个泛舟巡游也是跟团游的常规项目,在附近还有一个洛博克生态探险公园,占地面积不大,但公园整体给人的感觉很好,公园提供丛林滑索、丛林探险、漂流等项目可体验。

我们站在河边,看着泛舟巡游的船只,然后走到镇上参观了一会,旁边的一座高塔也被地震破坏掉了,急需维修。其实在保和地震中受损的远不止洛博克教堂,据统计,在保和岛中分布着几十座西班牙教堂,其中大部分在保和地震中受损,一些美丽的古教堂甚至完全倒塌,非常可惜!

2013年10月15日8时12分31秒在菲律宾保和省卡门镇附近(北纬9.8度、东经124.2度)发生7.2级地震。整个菲律宾中部地区均有震感。其中保和省首府塔格比拉兰市震度达七级。

本次地震未引起海啸,但余震频发,大量房屋坍塌,道路断裂。截止2013年10月15日下午5点共发生290次余震,最强的一次是4.8级。当天中午宿务省宣布进入“灾难状态”。

2013年10月16日下午报道称已造成至少201人遇难,受灾人口超过300万。菲律宾火山和地震研究所发布报告称,震源中心位于保和岛的卡门市东南两公里,震源深度为33公里,美国地质勘探局网站则称震源深度为56.8公里,菲火山地震研究所所长索利顿在接受电视台采访时表示,地震强度相当于32颗广岛原子弹的威力。

菲中部地区保和、宿务等地以及南部的棉兰老岛地区强烈有感。不过,太平洋海啸预警中心认为太平洋范围内没有面临海啸威胁,并未发布任何预警信息。菲律宾火山和地震研究所称,

这次地震在菲律宾中部的米沙鄢岛与南部的棉兰老岛部分地区有感,保和省首府塔格比拉兰市震度达7级,东内格罗斯省的辛尼加兰震度达6级,马斯巴特市震度为4级,伊洛伊洛市震度达5级,达沃市震度为3级。

由于余震不断,人们纷纷从建筑物中逃离。保和岛的晸府雇员形容:“我们逃出大楼,抱住树木,因为震感非常强烈。”“当震动停止后,我跑向街道看见有受伤的人。一些人说他们的教堂坍塌了。”

在宿务市的一名居民说,地震发生时她正在卧室里,听见轰隆隆的响声,仿佛是火车临近。紧接着,她看见电线杆向椰子树一样摇晃起来,持续了15到20秒。菲总统府的阿鸡糯先生已从内阁成员处陆续收到关于这场地震的灾情报告。翌日菲晸府宣布保和和宿务两省均进入“灾难状态”。信息部发布消息称,

菲律宾总统阿鸡糯三世已经抵达保和岛的塔比兰拉城,他将对宿务及保和岛的受灾情况进行评估。宿务市的医院迅速将病人疏散在街头,篮球场和公园。总统阿鸡糯下令国防部和社会福利部等各相关机构保证灾区救援工作顺利开展,菲军方和警方正在配合受灾地区晸府进行救灾行动。

地震引发山体滑坡致房屋被掩埋。保和省省长查托在接受当地媒体采访时表示,地震很强烈,保和很多老建筑受损严重,当地正在密切关注海平面变化情况。有网友上传图片称,保和的罗博教堂部分坍塌。大量房屋坍塌,道路断裂。地震导致宿务市一座体育馆坍塌,造成5人死亡、8人受伤。在附近另一座城市,惊慌的人们在逃出一栋大楼时有18人受伤。宿务麦克坦机场在地震中受损,航班暂停。

保和省不少历史建筑物受到很大破坏,包括拥有数百年历史的保和洛博克教堂和巴克拉永教堂。地震还造成130所学校和2000栋房屋被毁。强震还使得菲律宾的农田中出现了一条绵延数公里的“石墙”。

我们在被地震整垮的教堂旁边喝水,然后上车行驶到人造丛林,刚经历了太阳的炙烤,一进入丛林我们就感觉非常爽,偶尔能看到骑自行车的洋人,体力太好了,可惜人造林只是很短的一短路,很快我们又行驶在稻田间,看到一些农户在田间割稻谷。

我们又进入真正的天然丛林,很快就到达了保和眼镜猴保护区,我们停好摩托车之后就走进售票厅买了两张门票,花费120比索,我们进了景区丛林,慢悠悠地走进厕所,一出来就发现外面刚进来一队浩浩荡荡的中国跟团游客,几十号人正往景区涌入,我如临大敌,忙拉着媛提前一步冲到前面,陆续在工作人员的提示下看到很多躲在树叶下的拳头大小的菲律宾的国宝动物眼镜猴,

一些工作人员拿着媛的手机帮她拍照,暗示她给小费,全程禁止喧哗和使用闪光灯的,但中国人不习惯给小费,我们一路上拍摄了眼镜猴,转了一圈,后面跟着几个中国女孩。

其实眼镜猴并不是菲律宾独有,如果去过蓝碧岛和蓝碧海峡(以漫潜闻名于世,磷光中妙不可言的夜潜体验)的人一定听说过印度尼西亚的唐可可-班都安加斯杜亚绍达拉自然保护区(Tangkoko-Batuangas Dua Saudara Nature reserve),那里也栖息着黑猕猴,貂,眼镜猴等。。。

眼镜猴是一种高度特化的灵长类动物,体形很小,身长85到160毫米,尾长130到270毫米,体重80到165克,是体形极小的一种灵长动物。背毛质地柔软,为带有银色光泽的灰毛,腹毛浅灰色。头圆,吻及颈镀,耳壳薄而无毛,眼睛非常大,直径达16毫米。前肢短、后肢长,趾尖有圆形吸盘,可以在许多光滑的物体表面停留。头大而圆,眼睛特大,脸盘向前,眶间隔薄。

眼适于夜视,视网膜没有视锥。颈短,这是许多跳跃类群的特征。眼镜猴又称跗猴,属灵长目简鼻亚目跗猴型下目眼镜猴科,包括眼镜猴、西部眼镜猴和菲律宾眼镜猴3种。其是一种珍贵的小型猴类,是全世界已知的最小猴种。它们的独特之处在于眼睛,在小小的脸庞上,长着两只圆溜溜的大眼睛,眼珠的直径可以超过一厘米。

眼镜猴是热带和亚热带茂密森林中的树栖动物,喜欢生活在茂密的次生林和灌丛中,原始森林中也有分布。主要分布于东南亚的菲律宾和印尼等地,属于濒危动物。眼镜猴出现于距今6000万年以前,一直延续到现代。这是一支高度特化的灵长目动物,体长只有9到12厘米,体重为150克左右。

眼镜猴喜欢生活在茂密的次生林和灌丛中,原始林中也有分布。白天睡觉,夜间活动,能在树枝间跳动,距离可达几米,但它们却从不下到地面上活动。其听觉敏锐,颈部几乎可旋转360°。

主要捕食昆虫,也吃小型蜥蜴。捕捉食物时,行动极为迅速。雌兽长有2到3对乳头,怀孕期为180天左右,每胎产1仔,1年1胎。幼仔出生后只有6厘米长,身上被有绒毛,眼睛已经睁开,一出世便能抓住母亲或紧抱树枝。

眼镜猴产于苏门答腊、婆罗洲、西里伯斯和菲律宾,现分布于苏门答腊南部和菲律宾的萨马岛、莱特岛、迪纳加特岛、锡亚高岛、薄荷岛和棉兰老岛等岛屿。数量稀少,是濒危物种。全世界共有4种,除侏儒眼镜猴外,还有一种也分布于苏拉威西岛上,叫做苏岛眼镜猴;另一种叫菲律宾眼镜猴,分布于菲律宾棉兰老岛、萨马岛和莱特岛等地;还有一种叫巽他眼镜猴(也叫马来眼镜猴、邦加眼镜猴),分布于大巽他群岛以及新加坡邦加岛等地。

1921年,当最后一只侏儒眼镜猴被制成标本收藏在博物馆,人们就再也没有看到过这种动物。因此,科学家认为侏儒眼镜猴可能已经灭绝了。2008年这种像老鼠一样大小的灵长类动物被科学家意外地发现,原来它们一直隐藏在印度尼西亚茂密山林中。美国研究人员随同一支印尼当地的科研小组前往该处海拔2100多米的山顶上探察,终于发现了4只侏儒眼镜猴,并且成功捕获了2只雄性和1只雌性个体。

有人认为眼镜猴与原猴类存在许多差别,应属于猿猴类。也有人认为第三纪原猴与眼镜猴有共同的直接祖先,或者应把眼镜猴视为从原猴类向猿类进化的过渡类型。也有人认为它们是高度特化的种类。

据血清分析,眼镜猴和猴类的关系比与原猴类的关系更近,耳朵结构也与猿很相似。事实上眼镜猴并没有被归为猴类,而是类似狐猴或夜猴一样的哺乳动物,除了一双可爱的大眼睛,眼镜猴还有一对大耳朵,用来倾听猎物的动静,如昆虫、鸟类、蛇类、蜥蜴等。

它的后肢很长,而跗骨更是格外的长,故又称跗猴。白天的眼镜猴都非常懒散,但入夜以后眼镜猴靠着这种特殊的脚趾在树干和树枝上灵巧地爬来穿去,十分自如,有时一跃的距离竟相当于其体长的40倍,真是静如处女,动如脱兔。

我们看完眼镜猴之后就走出景区,看到广场上停着几辆旅游大巴,典型的中国旅游跟团行业的套路玩法,我们骑着摩托车行驶到比拉尔市场区域,意外发现村镇上有一家当地人开设的餐厅和面包店,

我们停车后就走进两个妇女开设的餐厅吃饭,还算干净,一边是小卖部,我们点了八个菜,包括双份的米饭,味道极好,我们吃得非常饱,还喝了一瓶汽水,期间不停有当地居民过来购买食物打包,这里没有一次性饭盒,打包都是用塑料袋,

后来过来一对母女,小女孩很喜欢喝碳酸汽水,她俩坐在餐厅吃饭,我俩支付262比索给老板,这顿饭的价格比景区餐厅便宜几倍。

Jumbo Huang citation resources: 《皇氏古建築大全》第23798:巴克拉永教堂Baclayon Church,La Purisima Concepcion de la Virgen Maria Parish Church (also The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary Parish Church), commonly known as Baclayon Church, is a Roman Catholic Church in the municipality of Baclayon, Bohol, Philippines within the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tagbilaran. Baclayon was founded by the Jesuit priest Juan de Torres and Gabriel Sánchez in 1596, and became the oldest Christian settlement in Bohol. It was elevated as a parish in 1717 and the present coral stone church was completed in 1727. The Augustinian Recollects succeeded the Jesuits in 1768 and heavily renovated the church since then. The church was declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines and a National Historical Landmark by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

Together with the churches of Maragondon, Loboc and Guiuan, the Baclayon Church was formerly included for the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List of the Philippines since 1993 under the collective group of Jesuit Churches of the Philippines. When a 7.2 magnitude earthquake struck Bohol and other parts of Central Visayas in 2013, the church building sustained major damage. Reconstruction started in 2013, and it will be opened again in 2017, The Jesuits, the first evangelizers of the Baclayon, planted the first seed of Christianity in Bohol upon the request of Dona Catalina de Bolanos, mother of the encomendero of Bohol island, Pedro de Gamboa to Father Antonio Sedeno, mission superior of Leyte and Samar. In November 17, 1596, the first Jesuits, Father Juan de Torres, SJ and Father Gabriel Sánchez, SJ , came to Baclayon. At that time, a Catholic chapel is already existing inside the encomienda. In 1717, Baclayon was elevated as a parish. The present stone church constructed under the Jesuits was finished in 1727. When the Jesuits were expelled in the country in 1768, the Augustinian Recollects immediately succeeded them in the late part of the same year in administering the spiritual needs of the people of Baclayon. The church, built out of coral stones, is a cross shaped (cruciform) church with its juncture or crossing surmounted by a pyramidal wall. The original tiled roof was replaced by galvanized iron in 1893. The church complex is strategically located facing the sea. It originally has defensive stone walls around but was removed in the 1870s. It also has a school building built out of coral stones in the middle of the 19th century. A wood and stone market was built in 1881.The quadrangular watchtower, which was also the church's bell tower, was left unfinished by the Jesuits when they were expelled out of the country. The Augustinian Recollects, who succeeded the Jesuits, completed the watchtower. It is used to be a detached structure from the church and was connected after the addition of the portico. Made of coral stones, it also has a bas relief of Saint Andrew with an inscription of the date the tower was finished during Father San Andrés de la Santísima Trinidad's administration, May 20, 1777. It still has the original six out of the nine bells from 1880 to 1894 during Father Cabanas' terms. The seventh bell (1886) is in the church museum while the eight bell (1872) is given to the newly founded parish of Corella. Baclayon ancestral home organisation listed 67 Spaniards ancestral houses. Baclayon was the first municipality to be established in Bohol by the Spaniards and included originally the areas now made up by the municipalities of Alburquerque, Balilihan, Corella, and Sikatuna. Its original name was Bacayan, from the root word bacay, meaning "detour" in reference to the fact that travellers used to make a detour there around a rocky cliff.

《皇氏古建築大全》第23800:Loboc Bohol,Loboc is known for its lunch cruises along the scenic and winding Loboc River. Tourists also come to see the tarsier, a small nocturnal animal with large red eyes. It is one of the world's smallest primates. The Loboc Children's Choir has won numerous competitions both domestic and international. Until the 2013 earthquake portions of the Loboc Church complex (specifically parts of what became the convent or priests' residence) were amongst the oldest standing ecclesiastical structures in Bohol province. The earthquake also damaged the lunch cruise Docking Port, and some damage to the pedestrian river bridge and its passenger elevator. At the end of 2014, Tropical storm Seniang passed directly over the Loboc river area. Although the winds were relatively low strength, Seniang brought with it a lot of rainfall. This caused the river to burst its banks in several places: the entire poblacion main plaza was flooded, including the town hall; many of the lunch cruise boats were damaged; and the accumulated debris of the church was disturbed and some washed away. It was fortunate that the new replacement bridge across the river had been completed just a few weeks before, allowing traffic to reach Tagbilaran via Sikatuna because the Loay interior road was damaged and impassable.《皇氏古建築大全》第23801:洛博克教堂Loboc Church,The San Pedro Apostol Parish Church commonly known as Loboc Church, is a Roman Catholic church in the municipality of Loboc, Bohol, Philippines, within the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tagbilaran.After the Jesuits established the Christian community in Baclayon, they moved to Loboc and established a second Christian settlement in Bohol. The parish was established in 1602, and the present coral stone church was completed in 1734. Because of its strategic location, it became the center of the Jesuit mission in the Bohol area. In 1768, upon the expulsion of the Jesuits, the town was transferred to the Augustinian Recollects. The church is classified as a National Historical Landmark by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines and a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines.It was severely damaged when a 7.2 magnitude earthquake struck Bohol and other parts of Central Visayas on October 15, 2013. The Loboc Church is currently in the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Sites under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension). A proposal has been suggested by scholars to make a separate UNESCO inclusion for the Old Centre of Loboc which includes the Loboc Church. The same would be made for other churches listed in UNESCO's tentative sites, where each town plaza and surrounding heritage buildings would be added. No government agency has yet to take action on the proposal, The church is built along the banks of the Loboc River. The coral stone church follows a cruciform plan, with a sunken pyramidal roof on its crossing. As a church built by the Jesuits, exterior walls of the church have the Jesuit insignia and icons of an angel's wing and head. Major renovations were undertaken by Augustinian priest Father Aquilino Bon, including the addition of a portico to the facade (1863–1866) and re-roofing with tiles (1873). Father José Sánchez, OAR, added stone buttresses to the walls (1891–1893) and side porticoes (1895–1896). Because of frequent flooding, its wooden flooring was changed to cement tiles in 1895 and was elevated in 1969. A detached four-storey bell tower was built near the riverbanks by the first Augustinian Recollect priest of Loboc. It has seven bells, with the 1863 bell being the oldest and the 1937 bell, named for Father Cayetano Bastes, being the largest. It also has a large wooden ratchet, installed in 1899, used during Holy Week, and a clock made by the Altonaga Company, installed in 1893, The church of Loboc suffered major damage to its structure, particularly its facade and tower, which both partially collapsed.The Diocese of Tagbilaran plans to restore the church of Loboc and all other churches destroyed by the earthquake. While waiting for the complete restoration and rehabilitation of the old church, the people of Loboc inaugurated an alternate church on October 12, 2014.
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